Target Size Manipulations Affect Error-Processing Duration and Success Perceptions but not Behavioural Indices of Learning

MSL research field: 
Skill acquisition
TitleTarget Size Manipulations Affect Error-Processing Duration and Success Perceptions but not Behavioural Indices of Learning
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsOng, NT, Hawke, J, Hodges, NJ
JournalBrain Sciences
Volume9
Issue5
Pagination119
Date Published5/2019
KeywordsEMG, motivation, motor control, Motor learning, throwing
Abstract

We evaluated if and how success perceptions, through target size manipulations, impact
processes related to motor learning. This work was based on recent literature suggesting that
expectations and self-efficacy exert a direct impact on learning. We measured arousal, kinematics,
learner expectancies, motivation, and outcomes in a dart-throwing task. Novices (n = 29) were
assigned to either a “Large-target” (horizontal target, 10-cm high) or “Small-target” (2-cm high)
group for practice (t = 90), and both groups completed 24-h retention tests. The Small-target group
took longer to plan and process feedback in the pre-throw and post-throw periods, respectively, and
showed larger joint amplitudes early in practice compared to the Large-target group. As predicted,
the Large-target group made more hits and had heightened outcome expectancies compared to the
Small-target group. Surprisingly, only the Large-target group performed better than they expected.
Despite the Large-target group having more target hits, enhanced expectancies, and more unexpected
success, this group did not outperform the Small-target group on behavioural indices of performance
and learning. This research questions assumptions and results related to success-related manipulations
for task performance and mechanisms related to target size manipulations.

URLhttps://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/9/5/119
DOI10.3390/brainsci9050119
Short TitleBrain Sciences
Refereed DesignationRefereed
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