We have been studying how people attain expert levels of performance in sport through measurement of their developmental practice histories. Much of this research has been conducted with reference to deliberate practice theory (Ericsson, Krampe & Tesch-Romer, 1993). Questionnaires, informal interviews and diary methods have typically been used to ascertain information about practice histories which are validated through interviews, observation and behavioural measurement. Recently we have been conducting research to study anticipation processes during action-observation and the role of the motor system in making predictions.


The study of expert performers allows us to make inferences about the processes underlying successful performance and the successful acquisition of motor skills. We have been interested in visual-motor control strategies which define performance at high levels of motor skill. Manipulation of information or the 'control strategy' of the performer has usually been achieved through visual occlusion methods, perturbation or attention-directing instructions.